All About Panchagavya - The Science in Ancient Wisdom

Desi Indian Cow

For millennia, our desi cow has been central to the Indian economy, life and culture. In the foundation texts of Ayurveda, there are countless mentions of the significance of native cows, lovingly called 'Gomata' in India,  Go - referring to the Cow and 'Mata' meaning mother or nurturer; epitomizing the native Cow's relation to health, agriculture, environment, economy and spiritual progress

According to the Vedic dharma, 'Gomata' is compared to the Sun. It is believe that the cosmic energy is emanated when one is in physical proximity to our native cows; have you ever felt the calm vibes coming from Gomata

Our body is made up of 'Panchamahabhuta' or the five elements - space, air, fire, earth and water. An imbalance in any of these, affect the constitution or 'prakriti' of a person and corresponds to a 'Dosha' which may result in poor health. Vata’ is a combination of space and air, ‘Pitta’ is a combination of fire and water and ‘Kapha’ is a combination of earth and water.

VATA - It regulates the breathing, blinking, pulsation of the heart, cytoplasm and cell membrane movements, and also muscles and tissue movements. It produces creativity and flexibility when it is in a 'balanced' state, and when it is imbalanced it promotes anxiety and fear

PITTA - It regulates the complete digestion process, metabolism, and body temperature. Pitta arouses intelligence and understanding when it is balanced. But when it is imbalanced it promotes hatred, anger, and jealousy.

KAPHA - Kapha acts as a 'glue' that helps cells bind together and lubricates bones, tendons, and muscles. When Kapha is balanced, it expresses calmness, love, and forgiveness. But when there is imbalance, it promotes envy, greed, and attachment.

If we were to compare the Panchagavya of the indigenous Cow of India with the Panchamahabhuta present in our body then it revealed some fascinating analogies  - The photon energy present in space is symbolized by “Makkhan”. The Makkhan was always revered in our country and hence was part of lores about Lord Krishna. One reason could be because it was always produced from the traditional bilona method every morning in our houses during the “Brahma Muhurta”. Now Brahma Muhurta which is also known as “Creator’s time” is believed to be auspicious for all practices like meditation, worship or any other religious or spiritual practice. Spiritual activities performed early in the morning have a greater effect than in any other part of the day. 
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In ancient times there was a great significance of churning curd during the Brahma Muhurta as during this time the energy from the Sun and the Moon are present in the atmosphere. The churning of curd using the traditional Bilona method produces all three types of energies viz. Brahma Urja, Vishnu Urja and Shiv Urja. As per our ancestors, this extraordinary power is only possessed by Desi Govansh as they possess “Suryaketu Nadi” which is again believed to be the energy from the Sun and the Moon both transferring it back to the Gavyas viz. milk, Gomutra and Gomay. 

Various studies have been made on the activity, safety, efficacy and acceptability of panchagavya and other cow products for human consumption and agriculture use. 

Panchagavya is an organic formulation, it is derived from the Sanskrit word, ‘Panch’ meaning ‘Five’ and ‘Gavya’ meaning ‘Cow’ viz., milk, ghee, curd, dung and urine (all these products are individually called as “Gavya” and collectively named as Panchagavya). This is an Ancient Indian concoction. It was formulated to use as a plant growth promoter and for medicinal purposes. 

Panchagavya in Agriculture

Artificial and synthetic pesticides and pharmaceuticals are known to pollute the aquatic, terrestrial, and atmospheric environment. Abundant use of artificial fertilizers has weakened the ecological base, degraded the quality of the soil, and water resources. Indian agriculture has a better chance to convert itself to organic agriculture because the per capita and per hectare consumption of chemical fertilizer and pesticides in the country is much lower than the global standards, which is a plus point for us. The only thing which is required is to inspire our farmers to practice Regenerative and Organic farming.

As per Ayurveda, the life of plants is studied in the system of "Vrikshayurveda" - in Sanskrit which means "The Science of Plant Life". The ancient scriptures prescribe the use of elements occurring in nature to enhance and nourish plant life thus contributing towards the holistic interdependence and balance between humans, plants & animals with their natural surroundings. 

Panchgavya has the potential to play the role of promoting growth and development at the same time providing immunity to the plant system. For increasing the microbial activity in the soil, few elements such as jaggery, banana, tender coconut and water is added to the panchagavya which works as fermenter and increases macronutrients, micronutrients and beneficial microorganisms thus increase soil health.

Ingredients to prepare  20L of Panchagavya 

  1. A2 Gir Cow ghee - 1kg 
  2. A2 Gir cows milk - 2L
  3. A2 Gir cows curd - 2L
  4. Gir Cow dung - 5kg
  5. Gir Cow urine - 3L
  6. Tender coconut water - 3L
  7. Ripened bananas - 1 dozen (12 pieces) 
  8. Sugarcane juice or jaggery - 3L or half a kg of jaggery

Stirred twice daily in clockwise direction to keep the aerobic bacteria alive and growing. It takes 21 days for the fermentation process. 

Panchagavya, Two Brothers Organic Farms, Organic Fertilizer, Desi Cow Panchagavya, Organic Manure, Soil Health, Organic Farming

Physico-chemical and Biological properties of Panchagavya

The physio-chemical and biological properties of this mixture are numerous. Almost all the essential chemical properties are available in this mixture. The panchagavya contains several macronutrients nutrients viz., nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and Zn, Fe, Cu, and Mn which are required for the normal growth and development of plants, also it contains Amino acids, enzymes, carbohydrates, vitamins, growth regulators and with beneficial microorganisms like Azotobacter, phosphobacteria etc.

Chemical composition 



EC dSm2


Total N (ppm)


Total P (ppm) 


Total K (ppm)






IAA (ppm)


GA (ppm)


Microbial load 







Total anaerobes 


Acid formers




How to use it?

Panchagavya should be used ONLY after diluting with water. A 2-3% solution works best - which means 20-30ml panchagavya solution diluted in 1000ml water. It is best to use untreated water if you have access to it. 
  1. Leaf sprays - For vegetables, fruits, crops, nursery plants, home gardening and farm crops. Dilute 200 ml in 10 litres of water and spray on the leaves. 
  2. Drip irrigation - Mix 2 litres per 100 litres with water through the drip irrigation. Drip irrigation reduces the wastage of water and will provide the nutrients where it’s needed the most.
  3. Seed treatment - Soak the Seeds in this solution for a few minutes and plant. It’ll improve the growth and fruiting rate of crops with increasing pest and diseases resistiveness. 
  4. Animal feed consumption - Add in 2L/100L water and add this solution to the fodder feed. This solution will enhance the healthy bacteria inside of animals for better digestion. 
  5. For composting. Panchgavya possesses a variety of good bacteria which are healthy for soil and decomposition

What Are The Benefits of using Panchagavya in agriculture

  1. To maintain genetic biodiversity.
  2. Acts as a natural and organic growth promoter.
  3. Acts as pest repellent in major commercial crops.
  4. Panchagavya acts as disease preventers both in plant and animal
  5. Improves the yield of farmers and reduces the COP (Cost of production)
  6. Panchgavya maintains ecological balance between crop production and livestock
  7. According to farmers it helps in increasing the canopy of the crop which helps in better photosynthesis.
  8. By using Panchagavya we’re saving our environment from harmful chemical fertilizers and pesticides.
  9. Improves the soil health and water retention capacity which reduces the water required for irrigation by 25 to 30%
  10. Panchagavya enhances the root growth thus promoting more fruiting and better soil health.
  11. The sugar content and aroma is completely different from the artificial growth promoters.
  12. As the crops and vegetables are grown organically the nutrients within the produce would be natural and preferable to our body.

Panchagavya, Two Brothers Organic Farms, Organic Fertilizer, Desi Cow Panchagavya, Organic Manure, Soil Health, Organic Farming

Panchagavya in Medicine

It is clearly mentioned in Ayurveda about cowpathy, How cows play an important role in our lives and how it balances the ecosystem on the earth. The main three products that we obtain from the cow viz., Milk, Cow urine (Gomutra), Cow Dung (Gomeya) and the by products out of it, are enormous, some of which are ghee, curd, makkhan, butter, buttermilk, gomutra ark (used for both agriculture purpose and in medicine), cow dung (used in agriculture and air purification). Products prepared from panchgavya are found to be beneficial for several human ailments and for the enhancement of the body’s immunity by providing resistance to fight the infections.

Desi Cow Milk

If we flash some light on our hindu mythology and Indian traditional medical practice cow milk has rejuvenatory health protecting and health promoting properties and hence has been said as the best one among vitalisers. The fatty acid and amino acid present in cow milk is very nutritious and growth promoting for infants and children.

Cow milk has low fat, low calories, low cholesterol and high micronutrients/vitamins. It sharpens intellect, gives swiftness of body, stability of emotions and a serene nature to the one who drinks it.

What Are The Benefits of consuming cow milk

Nutrition - It contains Vitamin A,B,C, B2, B3, B12, carotenes, all of which delays the process of aging.

Bio-protective role in humans - Proteins of milk are of a high biological value. The milk proteins are rated higher (96%) then that of plant proteins (74-78%). It is easily digestible, amino acids composition makes its protein easily digestible, it acts as a brain tonic and is good for the kidney, liver and gallbladder diseases, hyperlipidaemia and diabetes. 

Vision - It’s yellow substance “Carotene” (Vitamin A) increases the visual strength.

Anti-cancer properties - Cow milk fat component is a potential anti-carcinogenic agent, which helps in reducing chances of colon, breast and skin cancer.

Cow Dung (Gomeya)

Gomeya is a mixture of dung and urine in a ratio of around 3 : 1. It contains crude fibre (cellulose with lignin), crude protein, cellulose, hemicellulose, and 24 minerals like nitrogen, potassium, traces of sulphur, iron, magnesium, calcium, cobalt, manganese, and so forth [26]. Microbial composition of cow dung includes about 60 species of bacteria (Bacillus species, corynebacterium species, and lactobacillus species), fungi (aspergillus and trichoderma), about 100 species of protozoa and yeasts (saccharomyces and candida). Majority of bacteria are cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin fermenters. Cow dung comprises undigested fibre, sloughed off intestinal epithelium, some excreted products derived from bile (pigments), intestinal bacteria, and mucus.

Smoke produced on burning dry cow dung liberates oxygen instead of CO2 adding positivity to the surrounding. People even practice it as a homa ritual with adding Ghee, Gugad, Kapur and much more for elevating the efficacy of cow dung.

Cow urine

Cow urine and distillate of cow urine have been used in cancer patients with varying claims of improvement in the quality of life and even prolonged survival m. Earlier CSIR scientists were granted US patents for cow urine distillate due to its bio-enhancer, antibiotic, anti-fungal and anti-cancer activities.

Cow urine is natural and universal medicine that fulfills the deficiency of elements and reduces the increased elements in the body. Consumption of fresh cow urine 15-20ml is proven to be effective in elevating the positive Ojas or rather Aura of our body.

The urine of the cow contains all beneficial elements in it. Hence it is natural and universal medicine that fulfills the deficiency of elements and reduces the increased elements in the body and it is the quality of the urine, which helps in curing even the most incurable diseases. Two US patents have been granted to Indian scientists on establishing the bio enhancing properties of cow urine, its use in tuberculous patients and fighting certain types of cancers, thus opening a new era in medical science. Cow urine contains 24 types of salts and the medicines made from cow urine are used to cure several diseases. Cow urine contents are water 95%, urea 2.5%, minerals, salt, hormones, and enzymes - 2.5%. It contains iron, calcium, phosphorus, salts, carbonic acid, potash, nitrogen, ammonia, manganese, iron, sulphur, phosphates, potassium, urea, uric acid, amino acids, enzymes, cytokine and lactose etc. 

Cow ghee

Cow ghee, prepared traditionally, is regarded as beneficial in therapy and for health promotion. Kalpana Joshi has demonstrated that ghrita prepared by traditional Ayurvedic method contains a higher amount of DHA which has beneficial effects on human health 

Ghrita prepared by traditional ayurvedic methods contains a higher amount of DHA; Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which is a major component of retinal and brain tissues and remains important in prevention of various diseases. Ghee made from desi cow milk contains anti-bacterial, antifungal and antioxidant properties. The quality of ghee depends on the type and quality of milk and method of preparation. The storing quality of desi ghee is better than that of direct cream or creamery butter ghee because of the presence of phospholipids.

Ghee nasya is adding a few drops of ghee on the inside of the nostrils and laying back in a particular position to inhale deeply. The nasal passage can easily transmit toxins directly into the upper respiratory system and has access directly to the brain not only this adding nasya to nose reduces the migraine, usual headache and makes our brain more active. 'Nabhi' is considered to be a nerve junction of our body, adding drops of nasya inside of 'Nabhi' proves to be effective in curing many mental illnesses or even diseases to some extent. 

The author has completed a Diploma in Panchagavya Ayurveda from the Panchagavya Gurukulam, Kanchipuram.

Reference - 

  2. International Journal of Chemical Studies - PANCHAGAVYA: A low cost organic input in organic farming-a review - Pramod Kumar, Naushad Khan, Prashant Deo Singh, Anand Singh, Yogesh and Vikas Yadav.
  3. Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine - Panchgavya and cow products: A trail for the holy grail - Ashwinikumar A. Raut, Ashok D.B. Vaidya b. 

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